Kurnool, lies on the Deccan Plateau on the southern banks of the Tungabhadra and Handri rivers, has been the capital of Andhra Pradesh for three years from 1953 until 1956. The highlights of the city are the historical ruins of a royal fort belonging to the times of the medieval kingdom of Vijayanagar from 14th to the 16th century.
The name Kurnool is said to be derived from Kandenavolu or Kandanavolu (a Telugu name by which it is referred to in the inscriptions and literature of the past). According to the legend, in the time of the Western Chalukyas of Badami in the 11th century AD, the Vadderas who carted stones for the construction of the temples at Alampur (also known as Dakshina Kasi in Mahaboobnagar District), used the site on which the city now stands as a resting place before crossing the Tungabhadra. Here, they greased their cart-wheels with oil, which was supplied by some of the local oil mongers. They called the place Kandenametta.
Villages have existed at this site for more than 2,000 years.
The Chinese traveller Xuanzang, on his way to Kanchi, came through Kurnool.
Aurangazeb, the last Mogul King to rule India, conquered the Deccan in 1687 and left his governors, the Nizams, to rule the Andhra centres of Hyderabad and Kurnool. Both the Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Kurnool declared independence and became sole rulers of their territories. Nawab Alaf Khan Bahadur was the first ruler of Kurnool and his descendants ruled it for over 200 years. In the early 18th century, the Nawabs merged with the sultan of Mysore and fought the British Empire.
Air: Kurnool doesn't have its own airport. Hyderabad Airport is the nearest airport - at a distance of 213 km from Kurnool. It runs flights to and from all the major cities of India. Moreover, it has some international connections too. To cover further distance, you can hire taxis or take state buses that are easily available.
Rail: Kurnool Railway Station happens to be on the Secunderabad-Bangalore railway line. Owing to this fact, it is connected with all the stations falling on the line. You can approach either Hyderabad or Bangalore in order to reach other parts of India. From here, you can get passenger trains to Hyderabad, Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai and Hubli.
Road: Kurnool has a good network of state as well as district roads. National Highway No.7 traverses through this city, connecting it with other parts of India. Places like Cuddapah, Anantapur, Chittoor and Hyderabad are well-connected by various state and private bus services. Private taxis can be hired from anywhere in the state to travel here.